HOW MANY OF THIS “principles” ARE IGNORED BY israel in GAZA ,and by usa in IRAQ,AFGHANISTAN,etc. ?

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“”” Convention on the Rights of the Child

Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by
General Assembly resolution 44/25
of 20 November 1989

Preamble

    The States Parties to the present Convention,Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,

    Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,

    Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, ‘

    Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, “the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth”,

    Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,

    Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration,

    Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child,

    Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,

    Have agreed as follows:

PART I

Article 1

    For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

Article 2

    1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child’s parents, legal guardians, or family members.

Article 3

    1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.

Article 4

    States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.

Article 5

    States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 6

    1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.

Article 7

    1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.

Article 8

    1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.

Article 9

    1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child’s place of residence.2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child’s best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.

Article 10

    1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 11

    1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.

Article 12

    1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

Article 13

    • (a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
  • 1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child’s choice.2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

Article 14

1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.

3. Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

Article 15

1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 16

1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 17

States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. To this end, States Parties shall:(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;

(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;

(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children’s books;

(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;

(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.

Article 18

1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.

3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.

Article 19

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.

Article 20

1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State.2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.

3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child’s upbringing and to the child’s ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.

Article 21

States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child’s status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;

(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child’s care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child’s country of origin; (c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;

(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;

(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.

Article 22

1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties.2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason , as set forth in the present Convention.

Article 23

1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child’s active participation in the community.2. States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the child’s condition and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child. 3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistance extended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the financial resources of the parents or others caring for the child, and shall be designed to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child’s achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritual development

4. States Parties shall promote, in the spirit of international cooperation, the exchange of appropriate information in the field of preventive health care and of medical, psychological and functional treatment of disabled children, including dissemination of and access to information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and vocational services, with the aim of enabling States Parties to improve their capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 24

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.2. States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures:

(a) To diminish infant and child mortality;

(b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care;

(c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution;

(d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for mothers;

(e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents;

(f) To develop preventive health care, guidance for parents and family planning education and services.

3. States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children.

4. States Parties undertake to promote and encourage international co-operation with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 25

States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement.

Article 26

1. States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law.2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child.

Article 27

1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child’s development.

3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.

4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad. In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements.

Article 28

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;

(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;

(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;

(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children;

(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child’s human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention.

3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 29

1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to:(a) The development of the child’s personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential;

(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) The development of respect for the child’s parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;

(d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin;

(e) The development of respect for the natural environment.

2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State.

Article 30

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.

Article 31

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.

Article 32

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.2. States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular: (a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment;

(b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment;

(c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the present article.

Article 33

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislative, administrative, social and educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances.

Article 34

States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent:(a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;

(b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;

(c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.

Article 35

States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.

Article 36

States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child’s welfare.

Article 37

States Parties shall ensure that:(a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age;

(b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;

(c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child’s best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;

(d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.

Article 38

1. States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child.2. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities.

3. States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.

4. In accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.

Article 39

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child.

Article 40

1. States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child’s sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child’s respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the child’s age and the desirability of promoting the child’s reintegration and the child’s assuming a constructive role in society.2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that:

(a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed;

(b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:

(i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;

(ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence;

(iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians;

(iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;

(v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;

(vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;

(vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings. 3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:

(a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;

(b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.

4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.

Article 41

Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child and which may be contained in:(a) The law of a State party; or

(b) International law in force for that State.

PART II

Article 42

States Parties undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike.

Article 43

1. For the purpose of examining the progress made by States Parties in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a CRC, which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.2. The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field covered by this Convention. The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems. (amendment)

3. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.

4. The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year. At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Convention.

5. The elections shall be held at meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. The term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.

7. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State Party which nominated the member shall appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of the term, subject to the approval of the Committee.

8. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.

9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.

10. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee. The Committee shall normally meet annually. The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall be determined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a meeting of the States Parties to the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General Assembly.

11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.

12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide.

Article 44

1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made on the enjoyment of those rights:(a) Within two years of the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;

(b) Thereafter every five years.

2. Reports made under the present article shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the degree of fulfilment of the obligations under the present Convention. Reports shall also contain sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned.

3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph 1 (b) of the present article, repeat basic information previously provided.

4. The Committee may request from States Parties further information relevant to the implementation of the Convention.

5. The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council, every two years, reports on its activities.

6. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries.

Article 45

In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international co-operation in the field covered by the Convention:(a) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;

(b) The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from States Parties that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee’s observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications;

(c) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child;

(d) The Committee may make suggestions and general recommendations based on information received pursuant to articles 44 and 45 of the present Convention. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned and reported to the General Assembly, together with comments, if any, from States Parties.

PART III

Article 46

The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.

Article 47

The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48

The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 49

1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 50

1. Any State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to States Parties, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.

2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force when it has been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties.

3. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted it, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted.

Article 51

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.

3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States. Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General

Article 52

A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.

Article 53

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present Convention.

Article 54

The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.IN WITNESS THEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective governments, have signed the present Convention. “””

~~~~~

[RO]

 

“”” Statele parti la prezenta conventie,

avand in vedere ca, in conformitate cu principiile proclamate de Carta Natiunilor Unite, recunoasterea demnitatii si a drepturilor egale si inalienabile ale tuturor membrilor familiei umane constituie fundamentul libertatii, dreptatii si pacii in lume,

avand in vedere ca in Carta popoarele Natiunilor Unite au proclamat din nou increderea lor in drepturile fundamentale ale omului, in demnitatea si valoarea persoanei umane si au hotarat sa promoveze progresul social si conditii mai bune de trai in contextul unei libertati sporite,

recunoscand faptul ca Natiunile Unite, in Declaratia Universala a Drepturilor Omului si in pactele internationale privind drepturile omului, au proclamat si

au convenit ca fiecare poate sa se prevaleze de drepturile si de libertatile enuntate de acestea, fara nici o deosebire de rasa, culoare, sex, limba, religie, opinie politica sau orice alta opinie, nationalitate si origine sociala, situatie materiala, statut la nastere sau alt statut,

amintind faptul ca in Declaratia Universala a Drepturilor Omului Natiunile Unite au proclamat dreptul copiilor la ingrijire si asistenta speciale,

avand convingerea ca familia, ca unitate de baza a societatii si ca mediu natural destinat cresterii si bunastarii tuturor membrilor sai si, in special, a copiilor, trebuie sa beneficieze de protectia si de asistenta de care are nevoie pentru a-si putea asuma pe deplin responsabilitatile in cadrul societatii,

recunoscand ca pentru dezvoltarea plenara si armonioasa a personalitatii sale copilul trebuie sa creasca intr-un mediu familial, intr-o atmosfera de fericire, dragoste si intelegere,

tinand seama de faptul ca un copil trebuie sa fie pe deplin pregatit sa traiasca independent in societate si sa fie educat in spiritul idealurilor proclamate in Carta Natiunilor Unite si, in special, in spiritul pacii, demnitatii, libertatii, tolerantei, egalitatii si solidaritatii,

avand in vedere ca necesitatea de a extinde protectia speciala acordata copilului a fost enuntata in Declaratia de la Geneva din 1924 privind drepturile copilului si in Declaratia drepturilor copilului, adoptata de Adunarea Generala la 20 noiembrie 1959, si a fost recunoscuta in Declaratia Universala a Drepturilor Omului, in Pactul international privind drepturile civile si politice (in special art. 23 si 24), in Pactul international privind drepturile economice, sociale si culturale (in special art. 10) si in statutele si instrumentele aplicabile ale institutiilor specializate si ale organizatiilor internationale preocupate de bunastarea copilului, avand in vedere ca, asa cum s-a aratat in Declaratia drepturilor copilului, “data fiind lipsa sa de maturitate fizica si intelectuala, copilul are nevoie de protectie si ingrijire speciale, inclusiv de o protectie juridica adecvata, atat inainte cat si dupa nasterea sa”,

reamintind dispozitiile Declaratiei cu privire la principiile sociale si juridice aplicabile protectiei si bunastarii copiilor, cu referire speciala la practicile in materie de plasament familial si de adoptie pe plan national si international, precum si Regulile minimale standard ale Natiunilor Unite privind administrarea justitiei in cazul minorilor (Regulile de la Beijing), Declaratia privind protectia femeilor si copiilor in caz de stare de urgenta si de conflict armat, recunoscand ca in toate tarile lumii exista copii care traiesc in conditii extrem de dificile si care au nevoie de o atentie deosebita,

tinand seama de importanta traditiilor si a valorilor culturale ale fiecarui popor in protejarea si dezvoltarea armonioasa a copilului,

recunoscand importanta cooperarii internationale destinate imbunatatirii conditiilor de trai ale copiilor din toate tarile si, in special, din tarile in curs de dezvoltare,

convin dupa cum urmeaza:

PARTEA I
ARTICOLUL 1
In sensul prezentei conventii, prin copil se intelege orice fiinta umana sub varsta de 18 ani, exceptand cazurile in care legea aplicabila copilului stabileste limita majoratului sub aceasta varsta.

ARTICOLUL 2
1. Statele parti se angajeaza sa respecte si sa garanteze drepturile stabilite in prezenta conventie tuturor copiilor din jurisdictia lor, indiferent de rasa, culoare, sex, limba, religie, opinie politica sau alta opinie, de nationalitate, apartenenta etnica sau originea sociala, de situatia materiala, incapacitatea fizica, de statutul la nastere sau de statutul dobandit al copilului ori al parintilor sau al reprezentantilor legali ai acestuia.
2. Statele parti vor lua toate masurile de protejare a copilului impotriva oricarei forme de discriminare sau de sanctionare pe considerente tinand de situatia juridica, activitatile, opiniile declarate sau convingerile parintilor, ale reprezentantilor sai legali sau ale membrilor familiei sale.

ARTICOLUL 3
1. In toate actiunile care privesc copiii, intreprinse de institutiile de asistenta sociala publice sau private, de instantele judecatoresti, autoritatile administrative sau de organele legislative, interesele copilului vor prevala.
2. Statele parti se obliga sa asigure copilului protectia si ingrijirea necesare in vederea asigurarii bunastarii sale, tinand seama de drepturile si obligatiile parintilor sai, ale reprezentantilor sai legali sau ale altor persoane carora acesta le-a fost incredintat in mod legal, si in acest scop vor lua toate masurile legislative si administrative corespunzatoare.
3. Statele parti vor veghea ca institutiile, serviciile si asezamintele care raspund de protectia si ingrijirea copiilor sa respecte standardele stabilite de autoritatile competente, in special cele referitoare la securitate si sanatate, la numarul si calificarea personalului din aceste institutii, precum si la asigurarea unei supravegheri competente.

ARTICOLUL 4
Statele parti se angajeaza sa ia toate masurile legislative, administrative si de orice alta natura necesare in vederea punerii in aplicare a drepturilor recunoscute in prezenta conventie. In cazul drepturilor economice, sociale si culturale statele parti se obliga sa adopte aceste masuri, fara a precupeti resursele de care dispun si, daca este cazul, in cadrul cooperarii internationale.

ARTICOLUL 5
Statele parti vor respecta responsabilitatile, drepturile si indato- ririle ce revin parintilor naturali ai copilului sau, dupa caz si conform traditiei locale, membrilor familiei largite sau comunitatii, tutorilor sau altor persoane care au, prin lege, copii in ingrijire, de a asigura, de o maniera corespunzatoare capacitatilor in continua dezvoltare ale copilului, indrumarea si orientarea necesare in exercitarea de catre copil a drepturilor recunoscute in prezenta conventie.

ARTICOLUL 6
1. Statele parti recunosc dreptul la viata al fiecarui copil.
2. Statele parti vor face tot ce le sta in putinta pentru a asigura supravietuirea si dezvoltarea copilului.

ARTICOLUL 7
1. Copilul se inregistreaza imediat dupa nasterea sa si are, prin nastere, dreptul la un nume, dreptul de a dobandi o cetatenie si, in masura posibiliului, dreptul de a-si cunoaste parintii si de a fi ingrijit de acestia.
2. Statele parti vor veghea ca aplicarea acestor drepturi sa respecte legislatia lor nationala si obligatiile pe care acestea si le-au asumat in temeiul instrumentelor internationale aplicabile in materie, in special in cazul in care nerespectarea acestora ar avea ca efect declararea copilului ca apatrid.

ARTICOLUL 8
1. Statele parti se obliga sa respecte dreptul copilului de a-si pastra identitatea, inclusiv cetatenia, numele si relatiile familiale, astfel cum sunt recunoscute de lege, fara nici o imixtiune ilegala.
2. In cazul in care un copil este lipsit in mod ilegal de toate sau de o parte din elementele constitutive ale identitatii sale, statele parti vor asigura asistenta si protectia corespunzatoare pentru ca identitatea acestuia sa fie restabilita cat mai repede posibil.

ARTICOLUL 9
1. Statele parti vor veghea ca nici un copil sa nu fie separat de parintii sai impotriva vointei acestora, excepand situatia in care autoritatile competente decid, sub rezerva revizuirii judiciare si cu respectarea legilor si a procedurilor aplicabile, ca aceasta separare este in interesul suprem al copilului. O astfel de decizie poate deveni necesara in cazuri particulare cum ar fi, de exemplu, in cazul copiilor maltratati sau neglijati de parinti sau in cazul in care parintii traiesc separat si se impune luarea unei hotarari cu privire la locul de resedinta a copilului.
2. In toate cazurile prevazute la paragraful 1 din prezentul articol toate partile interesate trebuie sa aiba posibilitatea de a participa la dezbateri si de a-si face cunoscute punctele de vedere.
3. Statele parti vor respecta dreptul copilului care a fost separat de ambii parinti sau de unul dintre ei de a intretine relatii personale si contacte directe cu cei doi parinti ai sai, in mod regulat, exceptand cazul in care acest lucru contravine interesului suprem al copilului.
4. Cand separarea rezulta din masuri luate de catre un stat parte, precum detentia, inchisoarea, exilul, expulzarea sau moartea (inclusiv moartea, indiferent de cauza, survenita in timpul detentiei) ambilor parinti sau a unuia dintre ei ori a copilului, statul parte va furniza, la cerere, parintilor, copilului sau, dupa caz, unui alt membru al familiei informatiile esentiale despre locul unde se gasesc membrul sau membrii familiei, exceptand cazul in care divulgarea acestor informatii ar aduce prejudicii bunastarii copilului. Statele parti vor veghea, de asemenea, ca prezentarea unei astfel de cereri sa nu antreneze prin ea insasi consecinte daunatoare pentru persoana sau persoanele interesate.

ARTICOLUL 10
1. In conformitate cu obligatia ce revine statelor parti potrivit art. 9 paragraful 1, orice cerere depusa de un copil sau de parintii acestuia, in vederea intrarii intr-un stat parte sau a parasirii acestuia in scopul reintregirii familiei, va fi examinata de statele parti cu bunavointa, umanism si cu operativitate. Statele parti vor veghea, de asemenea, ca depunerea unei astfel de cereri sa nu antreneze consecinte nefaste asupra solicitantilor si membrilor familiei acestora.
2. Copilul ai carui parinti isi au resedinta in state diferite va avea dreptul de a intretine, in afara unor situatii exceptionale, relatii personale si contacte directe, in mod regulat, cu ambii sai parinti. In acest scop si in conformitate cu obligatia care revine statelor parti in temeiul art. 9 paragraful 1, statele parti vor respecta dreptul copilului si al parintilor sai de a parasi orice tara, inclusiv propria lor tara, si de a reveni in propria lor tara. Dreptul de a parasi orice tara nu poate fi ingradit decat de restrictiile prevazute in mod expres de lege si care sunt necesare pentru protejarea sigurantei nationale, a ordinii publice, a sanatatii publice sau a bunelor moravuri ori a drepturilor si libertatilor altora si care sunt compatibile cu celelalte drepturi recunoscute in prezenta conventie.

ARTICOLUL 11
1. Statele parti vor lua masuri pentru a combate actiunile ile- gale de transferare si de impiedicare a reintoarcerii copiilor in, respectiv din, strainatate.
2. In acest scop statele parti vor promova incheierea de acorduri bilaterale si multilaterale sau aderarea la acordurile existente.

ARTICOLUL 12
1. Statele parti vor garanta copilului capabil de discernamant dreptul de a-si exprima liber opinia asupra oricarei probleme care il priveste, opiniile copilului urmand sa fie luate in considerare tinandu-se seama de varsta sa si de gradul sau de maturitate.
2. In acest scop copilului i se va da, in special, posibilitatea de a fi ascultat in orice procedura judiciara sau administrativa care il priveste, fie direct, fie printr-un reprezentant sau un organism competent, in conformitate cu regulile de procedura din legislatia nationala.

ARTICOLUL 13
1. Copilul are dreptul la libertatea de exprimare; acest drept cuprinde libertatea de a cauta, de a primi si de a difuza informatii si idei de orice natura, indiferent de frontiere, sub forma orala, scrisa, tiparita sau artistica ori prin orice alte mijloace, la alegerea copilului.
2. Exercitarea acestui drept poate face subiectul restrictiilor, dar numai al acelor restrictii expres prevazute de lege si absolut necesare pentru:
a) respectarea drepturilor sau a reputatiei altora; sau
b) protejarea securitatii nationale, a ordinii publice, a sanatatii publice si a bunelor moravuri.

ARTICOLUL 14
1. Statele parti vor respecta dreptul copilului la libertatea de gandire, de constiinta si religie.
2. Statele parti vor respecta drepturile si obligatiile parintilor sau, dupa caz, ale reprezentantilor legali ai copilului de a-l indruma in exercitarea dreptului sus-mentionat, de o maniera care sa corespunda capacitatilor in formare ale acestuia.
3. Libertatea de a-si manifesta propriile convingeri religioase sau alte convingeri nu poate fi ingradita decat de restrictiile prevazute in mod expres de lege si care sunt necesare pentru protectia securitatii publice, a ordinii publice, a sanatatii publice si a bunelor moravuri sau a libertatilor si drepturilor fundamentale ale altora.

ARTICOLUL 15
1. Statele parti recunosc drepturile copilului la libertatea de asociere si la libertatea de intrunire pasnica.
2. Exercitarea acestor drepturi nu poate fi ingradita decat de restrictiile prevazute in mod expres de lege si care sunt necesare intr-o societate democratica, in interesul securitatii nationale, al sigurantei sau ordinii publice ori pentru a proteja sanatatea publica sau bunele moravuri ori pentru a proteja drepturile si libertatile altora.

ARTICOLUL 16
1. Nici un copil nu va fi supus unei imixtiuni arbitrare sau ile- gale in viata sa privata, in familia sa, in domiciliul sau ori in corespondenta sa, precum si nici unui fel de atac ilegal la onoarea si reputatia sa.
2. Copilul are dreptul la protectia garantata de lege impotriva unor astfel de imixtiuni sau atacuri.

ARTICOLUL 17
Statele parti vor recunoaste importanta functiei indeplinite de mijloacele de informare in masa si vor asigura accesul copilului la informatie si materiale provenind din surse nationale si internationale, in special cele care urmaresc promovarea bunastarii sale sociale, spirituale si morale si a sanatatii sale fizice si morale. In acest scop statele parti:
a) vor incuraja difuzarea, prin mijloacele de informare in masa, de informatii si materiale de interes social si educativ pentru copil si care sunt in conformitate cu art. 29;
b) vor incuraja cooperarea internationala in producerea, schimbul si difuzarea de astfel de informatii si materiale provenind din surse culturale, nationale si internationale;
c) vor incuraja producerea si difuzarea de carti pentru copii;
d) vor incuraja mijloacele de informare in masa sa tina seama, in mod deosebit, de nevoile lingvistice ale copiilor autohtoni sau ale celor care apartin unui grup minoritar;
e) vor favoriza elaborarea unor principii calauzitoare adecvate, destinate protejarii copilului impotriva informatiilor si materialelor care dauneaza bunastarii sale, avand in vedere prevederile art. 13 si 18.

ARTICOLUL 18
1. Statele parti vor depune eforturi pentru asigurarea recu- noasterii principiului potrivit caruia ambii parinti au responsabilitati comune pentru cresterea si dezvoltarea copilului. Parintii sau, dupa caz, reprezentantii sai legali sunt principalii responsabili de cresterea si dezvoltarea copilului. Acestia trebuie sa actioneze, in primul rand, in interesul suprem al copilului.
2. Pentru garantarea si promovarea drepturilor enuntate in prezenta conventie statele parti vor acorda ajutor corespunzator parintilor si reprezentantilor legali ai copilului in exercitarea responsabilitatii care le revine in legatura cu cresterea copilului si vor asigura crearea institutiilor, asezamintelor si serviciilor de ingrijire a copiilor.
3. Statele parti vor lua toate masurile corespunzatoare pentru a asigura copiilor ai caror parinti muncesc dreptul de a beneficia de serviciile si asezamintele de ingrijire a copiilor, pentru care ei indeplinesc conditiile cerute.

ARTICOLUL 19
1. Statele parti vor lua toate masurile legislative, administra- tive, sociale si educative corespunzatoare, in vederea protejarii copilului impotriva oricaror forme de violenta, vatamare sau abuz, fizic sau mental, de abandon sau neglijenta, de rele tratamente sau de exploatare, inclusiv abuz sexual, in timpul cat se afla in ingrijirea parintilor sau a unuia dintre ei, a reprezentantului ori reprezentantilor legali sau a oricarei persoane careia i-a fost incredintat.
2. Aceste masuri de protectie vor cuprinde, dupa caz, proceduri eficiente pentru stabilirea de programe sociale care sa asigure sprijinul necesar copilului si celor carora le-a fost incredintat, precum si pentru instituirea altor forme de prevenire si pentru identificarea, denuntarea, actionarea in instanta, anchetarea, tratarea si urmarirea cazurilor de rele tratamente aplicate copilului, descrise mai sus, si, daca este necesar, a procedurilor de implicare judiciara.

ARTICOLUL 20
1. Copilul care este, temporar ori permanent, lipsit de mediul sau familial sau care, pentru protejarea intereselor sale, nu poate fi lasat in acest mediu are dreptul la protectie si asistenta speciale din partea statului.
2. Statele parti, in conformitate cu legislatia lor nationala, vor asigura protectie alternativa pentru un astfel de copil.
3. Aceasta protectie poate include, mai ales, plasamentul familial, “kafalah” din dreptul islamic, adoptia sau, in caz de necesitate, plasarea in institutii corespunzatoare de ingrijire a copiilor. In alegerea uneia dintre aceste solutii este necesar sa se tina seama in mod corespunzator de necesitatea unei anumite continuitati in educarea copilului, precum si de originea sa etnica, religioasa, culturala si lingvistica.

ARTICOLUL 21
Statele parti care recunosc si/sau autorizeaza adoptia vor veghea ca interesele supreme ale copilului sa primeze si:
a) vor veghea ca adoptia unui copil sa fie autorizata numai de autoritatile competente care verifica, in conformitate cu legea si cu procedurile aplicabile, precum si pe baza tuturor informatiilor pertinente si credibile, ca adoptia se poate realiza luand in considerare statutul copilului in raport cu parintii, cu rudele si cu reprezentantii sai legali si, daca este cazul, ca persoanele interesate si-au dat consimtamantul cu privire la adoptie in cunostinta de cauza in urma unei consilieri corespunzatoare;
b) recunosc ca adoptia in strainatate poate fi considerata ca un mijloc alternativ de asigurare a ingrijirii necesare copilului, daca acesta, in tara de origine, nu poate fi incredintat spre plasament familial sau spre adoptie ori nu poate fi ingrijit in mod corespunzator;
c) vor asigura ca, in cazul adoptiei in strainatate, copilul beneficiaza de garantiile si standardele echivalente celor existente in cazul adoptiei nationale;
d) vor lua toate masurile corespunzatoare pentru a se asigura ca, in cazul adoptiei in strainatate, plasamentul copilului nu conduce la obtinerea de castiguri materiale necuvenite pentru persoanele implicate;
e) promoveaza obiectivele prezentului articol, incheind aranjamente sau acorduri bilaterale ori multilaterale, dupa caz, si se straduiesc, in acest cadru, sa asigure ca plasarea copiilor in strainatate sa fie efectuata de autoritatile sau organele competente.

ARTICOLUL 22
1. Statele parti vor lua masurile necesare pentru ca un copil care cauta sa obtina statutul de refugiat sau care este considerat refugiat in conformitate cu reglementarile si procedurile internationale si nationale aplicabile, fie ca este singur sau insotit de mama ori de tata sau de orice alta persoana, sa beneficieze de protectia si asistenta umanitara corespunzatoare, pentru a se putea bucura de drepturile recunoscute de prezenta conventie si de celelalte instrumente internationale privind drepturile omului sau ajutorul umanitar la care respectivele state sunt parti.
2. In acest scop statele parti vor contribui, dupa cum considera necesar, la toate eforturile intreprinse de O.N.U. si de alte organizatii guvernamentale sau neguvernamentale competente cooperand cu O.N.U., pentru a proteja si ajuta copiii care se gasesc intr-o astfel de situatie si pentru a gasi parintii sau alti membri ai familiei oricarui copil refugiat, in vederea obtinerii informatiilor necesare pentru reintregirea familiei sale. In cazul in care parintii sau alti membri ai familiei nu pot fi gasiti, copilului i se va acorda aceeasi protectie ca oricarui alt copil care este temporar sau total lipsit de mediul sau familial, indiferent de motiv, in conformitate cu principiile enuntate in prezenta conventie.

ARTICOLUL 23
1. Statele parti recunosc ca pentru copiii handicapati fizic si mental trebuie sa se asigure o viata implinita si decenta, in conditii care sa le garanteze demnitatea, sa le favorizeze autonomia si sa le faciliteze participarea activa la viata comunitatii.
2. Statele parti recunosc dreptul copiilor handicapati de a beneficia de ingrijiri speciale si incurajeaza si asigura, in masura resurselor disponibile, la cerere, copiilor handicapati care indeplinesc conditiile prevazute si celor care ii au in ingrijire, un ajutor adaptat situatiei copilului si situatiei parintilor sau a celor carora le este incredintat.
3. Recunoscand nevoile speciale ale copiilor handicapati, ajutorul acordat conform paragrafului 2 al prezentului articol va fi gratuit ori de cate ori acest lucru este posibil, tinand seama de resursele financiare ale parintilor sau ale celor care ii au in ingrijire, si va fi destinat asigurarii accesului efectiv al copiilor handicapati la educatie, formare profesionala, servicii medicale, recuperare, pregatire in vederea ocuparii unui loc de munca, activitati recreative, de o maniera care sa asigure deplina integrare sociala si dezvoltare individuala a copiilor, inclusiv dezvoltarea lor culturala si spirituala.
4. In spiritul cooperarii internationale, statele parti vor favoriza schimbul de informatii relevante in domeniul medicinei preventive si al tratamentului medical, psihologic si functional al copiilor handicapati, inclusiv prin difuzarea si accesul la informatii referitoare la metodele de recuperare, educare si formare profesionala, in scopul de a permite statelor parti sa isi perfectioneze capacitatile si competentele si sa isi extinda experienta in aceste domenii. In aceasta privinta se va tine seama, in mod deosebit, de nevoile tarilor in curs de dezvoltare.

ARTICOLUL 24
1. Statele parti recunosc dreptul copilului de a se bucura de cea mai buna stare de sanatate posibila si de a beneficia de serviciile medicale si de recuperare. Ele vor depune eforturi pentru a garanta ca nici un copil nu este lipsit de dreptul de a avea acces la aceste servicii.
2. Statele parti vor depune eforturi pentru a asigura aplicarea efectiva a acestui drept si, in mod deosebit, vor lua masurile corespunzatoare pentru:
a) reducerea mortalitatii infantile si a celei in randul copiilor;
b) asigurarea asistentei medicale si a masurilor de ocrotire a sanatatii pentru toti copiii, cu accent pe dezvoltarea masurilor primare de ocrotire a sanatatii;
c) combaterea maladiilor si a malnutritiei, inclusiv in cadrul masurilor primare de ocrotire a sanatatii, recurgand, printre altele, la tehnologii accesibile si la aprovizionarea cu alimente nutritive si cu apa potabila, luand in considerare pericolele si riscurile de poluare a mediului natural;
d) asigurarea ocrotirii sanatatii mamelor in perioada pre- si postnatala;
e) asigurarea ca toate segmentele societatii, in mod deosebit parintii si copiii, sunt informate, au acces la educatie si sunt sprijinite in folosirea cunostintelor de baza despre sanatatea si alimentatia copilului, despre avantajele alaptarii, ale igienei si salubritatii mediului inconjurator si ale prevenirii accidentelor;
f) crearea serviciilor de medicina preventiva, de indrumare a parintilor si de planificare familiala, si asigurarea educatiei in aceste domenii.
3. Statele parti vor lua toate masurile eficiente corespunzatoare, in vederea abolirii practicilor traditionale daunatoare sanatatii copiilor.
4. Statele parti se angajeaza sa favorizeze si sa incurajeze cooperarea internationala in vederea asigurarii, in mod progresiv, a deplinei infaptuiri a dreptului recunoscut in prezentul articol. In aceasta privinta se va tine seama, in mod deosebit, de nevoile tarilor in curs de dezvoltare.

ARTICOLUL 25
Statele parti recunosc dreptul copilului care a fost plasat de catre autoritatea competenta pentru a primi ingrijiri, la protejarea sau tratarea afectiunilor sale fizice ori mentale, dreptul la verificarea periodica a tratamentului respectiv si a oricaror alte aspecte legate de plasarea sa.

ARTICOLUL 26
1. Statele parti recunosc dreptul oricarui copil de a beneficia de asistenta sociala, inclusiv de asigurari sociale, si vor lua masuri pentru asigurarea exercitarii depline a acestui drept in conformitate cu legislatia lor nationala.
2. La acordarea indemnizatiilor prevazute de lege se va tine seama, cand este cazul, de resursele si situatia copilului si ale persoanelor responsabile de intretinerea sa, precum si de orice alte imprejurari care au legatura cu cererea de acordare a indemnizatiilor, inaintata de copil sau in numele sau.

ARTICOLUL 27
1. Statele parti recunosc dreptul oricarui copil de a beneficia de un nivel de trai care sa permita dezvoltarea sa fizica, mentala, spirituala, morala si sociala.
2. Parintilor si oricarei alte persoane care au in grija un copil le revine in primul rand responsabilitatea de a asigura, in limita posibilitatilor si a mijloacelor lor financiare, conditiile de viata necesare in vederea dezvoltarii copilului.
3. Statele parti vor adopta masurile corespunzatoare, tinand seama de conditiile nationale si in limita mijloacelor lor, pentru a ajuta parintii si alte persoane care au in grija un copil sa valorifice acest drept si vor oferi in caz de nevoie asistenta materiala si programe de sprijin destinate, in principal, satisfacerii nevoilor de hrana, imbracaminte si locuinta.
4. Statele parti vor lua toate masurile adecvate pentru recuperarea pensiei alimentare pentru copil de la parintii sai sau de la alte persoane care raspund din punct de vedere financiar pentru acesta, atat pe teritoriul statului parte, cat si in strainatate.
Astfel, in situatia in care persoana care raspunde din punct de vedere financiar pentru copil nu locuieste in statul in care locuieste copilul, statele parti vor incuraja aderarea la acorduri internationale sau incheierea de asemenea acorduri, precum si adoptarea oricaror alte intelegeri corespunzatoare.

ARTICOLUL 28
1. Statele parti recunosc dreptul copilului la educatie si, in vederea asigurarii exercitarii acestui drept in mod progresiv si pe baza egalitatii de sanse, in special, statele membre vor avea obligatia:
a) de a asigura invatamantul primar obligatoriu si gratuit pentru toti;
b) de a incuraja crearea diferitelor forme de invatamant secundar, atat general, cat si profesional si de a le pune la dispozitia tuturor copiilor si de a permite accesul tuturor copiilor la acestea, de a lua masuri corespunzatoare, cum ar fi instituirea gratuitatii invatamantului si acordarea unui ajutor financiar in caz de nevoie;
c) de a asigura tuturor accesul la invatamantul superior, in functie de capacitatea fiecaruia, prin toate mijloacele adecvate;
d) de a pune la dispozitie copiilor si de a permite accesul acestora la informarea si orientarea scolara si profesionala;
e) de a lua masuri pentru incurajarea frecventarii cu regularitate a scolii si pentru reducerea ratei abandonului scolar.
2. Statele parti vor lua toate masurile corespunzatoare pentru a asigura aplicarea masurilor de disciplina scolara intr-un mod compatibil cu demnitatea copilului ca fiinta umana si in conformitate cu prezenta conventie.
3. Statele parti vor promova si vor incuraja cooperarea internationala in domeniul educatiei, mai ales in scopul de a contribui la eliminarea ignorantei si a analfabetismului in lume si de a facilita accesul la cunostinte stiintifice si tehnice si la metode de invatamant moderne. In aceasta privinta se va tine seama, in special, de nevoile tarilor in curs de dezvoltare.

ARTICOLUL 29
1. Statele parti sunt de acord ca educatia copilului trebuie sa urmareasca:
a) dezvoltarea plenara a personalitatii, a vocatiilor si a aptitudinilor mentale si fizice ale copilului;
b) cultivarea respectului pentru drepturile omului si libertatile fundamentale, precum si pentru principiile consacrate in Carta Natiunilor Unite;
c) educarea copilului in spiritul respectului fata de parintii sai, fata de limba sa, de identitatea si valorile sale culturale, fata de valorile nationale ale tarii in care acesta locuieste, ale tarii de origine, precum si fata de civilizatii diferite de a sa;
d) pregatirea copilului sa isi asume responsabilitatile vietii intr-o societate libera, intr-un spirit de intelegere, de pace, de toleranta, de egalitate intre sexe si prietenie intre toate popoarele si grupurile etnice, nationale si religioase si cu persoanele de origine autohtona;
e) educarea copilului in spiritul respectului fata de mediul natural.
2. Nici o dispozitie din prezentul articol sau din art. 28 nu va fi interpretata de o maniera care sa aduca atingere libertatii persoanelor fizice sau juridice de a crea si conduce institutii de invatamant, cu conditia ca principiile enuntate in paragraful 1 al prezentului articol sa fie respectate si ca educatia data in aceste institutii sa respecte normele minimale prescrise de stat.

ARTICOLUL 30
In statele in care exista minoritati etnice, religioase sau ling- vistice ori persoane de origine autohtona copilul apartinand unei astfel de minoritati sau avand origine autohtona nu va fi privat de dreptul la viata culturala proprie, de dreptul de a-si declara apartenenta religioasa si de a-si practica propria religie, precum si dreptul de a folosi limba proprie in comun cu alti membri ai grupului sau.

ARTICOLUL 31
1. Statele parti recunosc copilului dreptul la odihna si la vacanta, dreptul de a practica activitati recreative proprii varstei sale, de a participa liber la viata culturala si artistica.
2. Statele parti respecta si promoveaza dreptul copilului de a participa pe deplin la viata culturala si artistica si incurajeaza punerea la dispozitie acestuia a mijloacelor adecvate de petrecere a timpului liber si de desfasurare a activitatilor recreative, artistice si culturale, in conditii de egalitate.

ARTICOLUL 32
1. Statele parti recunosc dreptul copilului de a fi protejat impotriva exploatarii economice si de a nu fi constrans la vreo munca ce comporta vreun risc potential sau care este susceptibila sa ii compromita educatia ori sa ii dauneze sanatatii sau dezvoltarii sale fizice, mentale, spirituale, morale ori sociale.
2. Statele parti vor lua masuri legislative, administrative, sociale si educative pentru a asigura aplicarea prezentului articol. In acest scop si tinand seama de dispozitiile aplicabile ale celorlalte instrumente internationale, statele parti se obliga, in special:
a) sa fixeze o varsta minima sau varste minime de angajare;
b) sa adopte o reglementare cu privire la orele si la conditiile de munca;
c) sa prevada pedepse sau alte sanctiuni corespunzatoare, pentru a asigura aplicarea intocmai a prezentului articol.

ARTICOLUL 33
Statele parti vor lua masuri corespunzatoare, inclusiv masuri legislative, administrative, sociale si educationale, pentru a proteja copiii contra folosirii ilicite de stupefiante si substante psihotrope, asa cum sunt acestea definite de conventiile internationale in materie si pentru a preveni folosirea copiilor in scopul producerii si al traficului ilicit de astfel de substante.

ARTICOLUL 34
Statele parti se angajeaza sa protejeze copilul contra oricarei forme de exploatare sexuala si de violenta sexuala. In acest scop statele vor lua, in special, toate masurile corespunzatoare pe plan national, bilateral si multilateral, pentru a impiedica:
a) incitarea sau constrangerea copiilor sa se dedea la activitati sexuale ilegale;
b) exploatarea copiilor in scopul prostitutiei sau al altor practici sexuale ilegale;
c) exploatarea copiilor in scopul productiei de spectacole sau de materiale cu caracter pornografic.

ARTICOLUL 35
Statele parti vor lua toate masurile necesare, pe plan national, bilateral si multilateral, pentru a preveni rapirea, vanzarea si traficul de copii in orice scop si sub orice forma.

ARTICOLUL 36
Statele parti vor proteja copilul contra oricarei forme de exploatare daunatoare oricarui aspect al bunastarii sale.

ARTICOLUL 37
Statele parti vor veghea ca:
a) nici un copil sa nu fie supus la tortura, la pedepse sau la tratamente crude, inumane sau degradante. Pedeapsa capitala sau inchisoarea pe viata fara posibilitatea de a fi eliberat nu va fi pronuntata pentru infractiunile comise de persoane sub varsta de 18 ani;
b) nici un copil sa nu fie privat de libertate in mod ilegal sau arbitrar. Arestarea, detinerea sau intemnitarea unui copil trebuie sa fie conforma cu legea si nu va fi decat o masura extrema si cat mai scurta posibil;
c) orice copil privat de libertate sa fie tratat cu omenie si cu respectul cuvenit demnitatii umane si de o maniera care sa tina seama de nevoile persoanelor de varsta sa. Astfel, orice copil privat de libertate va fi separat de adulti, cu exceptia cazurilor in care se apreciaza ca fiind in interesul major al copilului sa nu se procedeze astfel, si va avea dreptul de a mentine contactul cu familia sa prin corespondenta si vizite, in afara unor cazuri exceptionale;
d) copiii privati de libertate sa aiba dreptul de a avea acces rapid la asistenta juridica sau la orice alta asistenta corespunzatoare, precum si dreptul de a contesta legalitatea privarii lor de libertate, in fata unui tribunal sau a unei alte autoritati competente, independente si impartiale, si dreptul la judecarea in procedura de urgenta a cazului respectiv.

ARTICOLUL 38
1. Statele parti se angajeaza sa respecte si sa asigure res- pectarea regulilor dreptului umanitar international aplicabile in caz de conflict armat si menite sa garanteze protectia copilului.
2. Statele parti vor lua toate masurile posibile pentru a garanta ca persoanele care nu au implinit varsta
de 15 ani sa nu participe direct la ostilitati.
3. Statele parti se vor abtine de a inrola in fortele lor armate persoane care nu au implinit varsta de 15 ani. Atunci cand incorporeaza persoane mai mari de 15 ani, dar mai mici de 18 ani, statele parti se vor stradui sa inroleze, cu prioritate, pe cei mai in varsta.
4. Conform obligatiei care le revine in virtutea dreptului umanitar international de a proteja populatia civila in caz de conflict armat, statele parti vor lua toate masurile fezabile, astfel incat copiii afectati de conflictul armat sa beneficieze de protectie si de ingrijire.

ARTICOLUL 39
Statele parti vor lua toate masurile corespunzatoare pentru a facilita recuperarea fizica si psihologica si reintegrarea sociala a copiilor, victime ale unei forme de neglijenta, exploatare sau abuz, de tortura sau pedeapsa ori tratamente crude, inumane sau degradante ori victime ale unui conflict armat. Aceasta readaptare si aceasta reintegrare se vor desfasura in conditii care favorizeaza sanatatea, respectul de sine si demnitatea copilului.

ARTICOLUL 40
1. Statele parti recunosc oricarui copil banuit, acuzat sau cu privire la care s-a dovedit ca a comis o incalcare a legii penale dreptul la un tratament conform cu simtul demnitatii si al valorii personale, care sa intareasca respectul sau pentru drepturile omului si libertatile fundamentale ale altora si care sa tina seama de varsta sa, precum si de necesitatea de a facilita reintegrarea sa in societate si asumarea de catre acesta a unui rol constructiv in societate.
2. In acest scop si tinand seama de dispozitiile in materie ale instrumentelor internationale, statele parti vor veghea, in special:
a) ca nici un copil sa nu fie banuit, acuzat sau declarat vinovat de o incalcare a legii penale datorita unor actiuni sau omisiuni care nu erau interzise de dreptul national sau international in momentul comiterii lor;
b) ca orice copil banuit sau acuzat de o incalcare a legii penale sa aiba garantate cel putin urmatoarele drepturi:
(i) de a fi prezumat nevinovat pana la stabilirea vinovatiei sale conform legii;
(ii) de a fi informat in cel mai scurt termen si direct despre acuzatiile care i se aduc sau, daca este cazul, prin intermediul parintilor sai sau al reprezentantilor legali si de a beneficia de asistenta juridica sau de orice alt fel de asistenta corespunzatoare, in vederea formularii si sustinerii apararilor sale;
(iii) dreptul la examinarea, fara intarziere, a cauzei sale de catre o autoritate sau o instanta judiciara competenta, independenta si impartiala, printr-o procedura de audiere echitabila si conforma cu prevederile legii, in prezenta celor care ii asigura asistenta juridica sau de alta natura, iar daca acest lucru nu este considerat contrar interesului major al copilului, tinand seama mai ales de varsta ori de situatia acestuia, in prezenta parintilor sai sau a reprezentantilor sai legali;
(iv) de a nu fi constrans sa depuna marturie sau sa marturiseasca ca este vinovat; dreptul de a interoga sau de a cere interogarea martorilor acuzarii, de a obtine aducerea si interogarea martorilor apararii, in conditii de egalitate;
(v) daca se dovedeste ca a incalcat legea penala, dreptul de a recurge la o cale de atac cu privire la decizie si la orice masura luata in consecinta, in fata unei autoritati sau a unei instante judiciare superioare competente, independente si impartiale, conform legii;
(vi) dreptul de a fi asistat gratuit de un interpret, daca nu intelege sau nu vorbeste limba utilizata;
(vii) dreptul la respectarea deplina a vietii sale private, in toate fazele procedurii.
3. Statele parti se vor stradui sa promoveze adoptarea de legi si proceduri, infiintarea de autoritati si institutii, special concepute pentru copiii banuiti, acuzati sau gasiti vinovati de incalcarea legii penale si, in special:
a) sa stabileasca o varsta minima sub care copiii sa fie prezumati ca neavand capacitatea de a incalca legea penala;
b) sa ia, ori de cate ori este posibil si recomandabil, masuri de solutionare a cazurilor acestor copii, fara a recurge la procedura judiciara, cu conditia ca drepturile si garantiile legale sa fie respectate pe deplin.
4. Va fi prevazuta o intreaga gama de dispozitii, precum cele referitoare la ingrijire, orientare si supraveghere, la indrumare, la perioadele de proba, la plasamentul familial, la programe de educatie generala si profesionala si la solutii alternative celor privind ingrijirea intr-un cadru institutional, pentru a asigura copiilor un tratament in interesul bunastarii lor si proportional cu situatia lor si cu infractiunea savarsita.

ARTICOLUL 41
Nici o dispozitie din prezenta conventie nu aduce atingere pre- vederilor mai favorabile pentru realizarea acestor drepturi ale copilului care pot figura:
a) in legislatia unui stat parte; sau
b) in dreptul international in vigoare pentru statul respectiv.

PARTEA a II-a
ARTICOLUL 42
Statele parti se angajeaza sa faca larg cunoscute atat adultilor, cat si copiilor principiile si dispozitiile prezentei conventii, prin mijloace active si adecvate.

ARTICOLUL 43
1. In vederea examinarii progreselor inregistrate de statele parti in executarea obligatiilor pe care si le-au asumat in virtutea prezentei conventii, se instituie un comitet al drepturilor copilului, ale carui atributii sunt descrise mai jos.
2. Comitetul se compune din 10 experti de o inalta tinuta morala si care poseda o competenta recunoscuta in domeniul reglementat de prezenta conventie. Membrii Comitetului sunt alesi de statele parti din randul cetatenilor lor si actioneaza in nume propriu, tinandu-se seama de necesitatea asigurarii unei repartitii geografice echitabile si a reprezentarii principalelor sisteme juridice.
3. Membrii Comitetului sunt alesi prin vot secret de pe o lista de persoane desemnate de statele parti. Fiecare stat parte poate desemna un candidat dintre cetatenii sai.
4. Primele alegeri vor avea loc in termen de 6 luni de la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei conventii, iar ulterior, la fiecare 2 ani. Cu minimum 4 luni inaintea datei fiecarei alegeri secretarul general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite va invita in scris statele parti sa propuna candidatii lor intr-un termen de doua luni. Secretarul general va intocmi apoi o lista alfabetica a candidatilor astfel desemnati, indicand statele parti care i-au desemnat, si o va comunica statelor parti la conventie.
5. Alegerile vor avea loc la reuniunile statelor parti, convocate de secretarul general, la sediul Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite. La aceste reuniuni, la care cvorumul se intruneste cu doua treimi din numarul statelor parti, candidatii alesi in Comitet sunt cei care obtin cel mai mare numar de voturi si majoritatea absoluta a voturilor reprezentantilor statelor parti prezente si votante.
6. Membrii Comitetului se aleg pentru un mandat de 4 ani. Ei pot fi realesi la o noua prezentare a candidaturii lor. Mandatul a 5 membri desemnati la primele alegeri va inceta dupa 2 ani. Numele celor 5 membri vor fi trase la sorti de catre presedintele reuniunii, imediat dupa prima alegere.
7. In caz de deces sau de demisie a unui membru al Comitetului sau daca, pentru orice alt motiv, un membru declara ca nu isi mai poate exercita functiile sale in cadrul Comitetului, statul parte care a prezentat candidatura membrului respectiv numeste un alt expert dintre cetatenii sai pentru a ocupa postul vacant pana la expirarea mandatului respectiv, sub rezerva aprobarii de catre Comitet.
8. Comitetul aproba regulamentul sau de ordine interioara.
9. Comitetul alege biroul sau pentru o perioada de 2 ani.
10. Adunarile Comitetului se tin, in mod normal, la sediul Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite sau in orice alt loc corespunzator stabilit de Comitet. Comitetul se reuneste, de regula, in fiecare an. Durata sesiunilor sale se stabileste si, daca este cazul, se modifica de catre reuniunea statelor parti la prezenta conventie, sub rezerva aprobarii de catre adunarea generala.
11. Secretarul general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite pune la dispozitie Comitetului personalul si dotarile necesare acestuia pentru a-si indeplini eficient functiile incredintate conform prezentei conventii.
12. Membrii Comitetului creat in virtutea prezentei conventii primesc, cu aprobarea adunarii generale, indemnizatii din resursele Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite, in conditiile si modalitatile fixate de adunarea generala.

ARTICOLUL 44
1. Statele parti se angajeaza sa supuna Comitetului, prin inter- mediul secretarului general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite, rapoarte privitoare la masurile pe care le adopta pentru punerea in vigoare a drepturilor recunoscute in prezenta conventie si la progresele realizate in exercitarea acestor drepturi:
a) in termen de 2 ani incepand de la data intrarii in vigoare a prezentei conventii pentru statele parti interesate;
b) in continuare, la fiecare 5 ani.
2. Rapoartele intocmite conform prezentului articol trebuie, daca este cazul, sa arate cauzele sau dificultatile care impiedica statele parti sa se achite pe deplin de obligatiile prevazute in prezenta conventie. Ele trebuie, de asemenea, sa cuprinda informatii suficiente pentru a da Comitetului o idee exacta asupra aplicarii conventiei in tara respectiva.
3. Statele parti care au prezentat Comitetului un raport initial nu vor repeta in rapoartele pe care le prezinta ulterior conform prezentului articol, paragraful 1 alin. (b), informatiile de baza pe care le-au comunicat anterior.
4. Comitetul poate cere statelor parti toate informatiile complementare referitoare la aplicarea conventiei.
5. Comitetul inainteaza la fiecare 2 ani adunarii generale, prin intermediul Consiliului Economic si Social, un raport de activitate.
6. Statele parti asigura difuzarea pe scara larga a propriilor rapoarte pe teritoriul lor.

ARTICOLUL 45
Pentru a promova aplicarea efectiva a conventiei si a incuraja cooperarea internationala in domeniul vizat de conventie:
a) Institutiile specializate, Fondul Natiunilor Unite pentru Copii si alte organe ale Natiunilor Unite au dreptul de a fi reprezentate la analizarea modului de aplicare a acelor dispozitii din prezenta conventie, care tin de mandatul lor. Comitetul poate invita institutiile specializate, Fondul Natiunilor Unite pentru Copii si orice alte organisme competente pe care le va considera corespunzatoare sa dea avize specializate asupra aplicarii conventiei in domeniile care tin de mandatele lor respective.
Comitetul poate invita institutiile specializate, Fondul Natiunilor Unite pentru Copii si alte organe ale Natiunilor Unite sa ii prezinte rapoarte asupra aplicarii conventiei in sectoarele care tin de domeniul lor de activitate.
b) Comitetul transmite, daca considera necesar, institutiilor specializate, Fondului Natiunilor Unite pentru Copii si altor organisme competente orice raport al statelor parti, care contine o cerere sau care specifica necesitatea asigurarii de consultanta ori asistenta tehnica, insotit, daca este cazul, de observatiile si sugestiile Comitetului referitoare la cererea sau specificatia respectiva.
c) Comitetul poate recomanda adunarii generale sa ceara secretarului general sa dispuna efectuarea, in numele Comitetului, a unor studii asupra problemelor specifice care afecteaza drepturile copilului.
d) Comitetul poate face sugestii si recomandari de ordin general, pe baza informatiilor primite in conformitate cu art. 44 si 45.
Aceste sugestii si recomandari de ordin general se vor transmite tuturor statelor parti interesate si se vor supune atentiei adunarii generale, insotite, daca este cazul, de observatiile statelor parti.

PARTEA a III-a

ARTICOLUL 46
Prezenta conventie este deschisa spre semnare tuturor statelor.

ARTICOLUL 47
Prezenta conventie face subiectul ratificarii. Instrumentele de ratificare vor fi inaintate secretarului general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite.

ARTICOLUL 48
Prezenta conventie va ramane deschisa aderarii oricarui stat. Instrumentele de aderare vor fi inaintate secretarului general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite.

ARTICOLUL 49
1. Prezenta conventie va intra in vigoare in a treizecea zi de la depunerea la secretarul general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite a celui de-al douazecilea instrument de ratificare sau de aderare.
2. Pentru fiecare stat care va ratifica prezenta conventie sau care va adera la aceasta dupa depunerea celui de-al douazecilea instrument de ratificare sau de aderare conventia va intra in vigoare in a treizecea zi de la depunerea de catre statul respectiv a intrumentului sau de ratificare sau de aderare.

ARTICOLUL 50
1. Orice stat parte poate sa propuna un amendament si sa depuna textul acestuia la secretarul general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite. Secretarul general va comunica propunerea de amendament statelor parti, cerandu-le sa ii faca cunoscut daca sunt in favoarea convocarii unei conferinte a statelor parti, in vederea examinarii propunerii si a supunerii ei la vot. Daca in termen de 4 luni de la aceasta comunicare cel putin o treime din numarul statelor parti se pronunta in favoarea convocarii unei asemenea conferinte, secretarul general convoaca conferinta sub auspiciile Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite. Orice amendament adoptat de majoritatea statelor parti prezente si votante la conferinta este supus spre aprobare adunarii generale.
2. Orice amendament adoptat conform dispozitiilor paragrafului 1 al prezentului articol va intra in vigoare dupa aprobarea sa de catre Adunarea Generala a Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite si dupa acceptarea sa cu o majoritate de doua treimi din numarul statelor parti.
3. La intrarea sa in vigoare amendamentul are forta obligatorie pentru statele parti care l-au acceptat, celelalte state ramanand legate de dispozitiile din prezenta conventie si de toate amendamentele anterioare acceptate de ele.

ARTICOLUL 51
1. Secretarul general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite va primi si va comunica tuturor statelor textul rezervelor formulate de state la data ratificarii sau aderarii.
2. Rezervele incompatibile cu obiectul si scopul prezentei conventii nu sunt admise.
3. Rezervele pot fi retrase in orice moment printr-o notificare in acest sens adresata secretarului general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite, care va informa, in consecinta, toate statele parti la conventie. Notificarea va produce efecte de la data la care este primita de secretarul general.

ARTICOLUL 52
Orice stat poate denunta prezenta conventie printr-o notificare scrisa adresata secretarului general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite. Denuntarea produce efecte la un an de la data la care notificarea a fost primita de secretarul general.

ARTICOLUL 53
Secretarul general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite este desem- nat ca depozitar al prezentei conventii.

ARTICOLUL 54
Originalul prezentei conventii, ale carei texte in limbile araba, chineza, engleza, franceza, rusa si spaniola sunt autentice in egala masura, va fi depus la secretarul general al Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite.
Drept care plenipotentiarii subsemnati, imputerniciti in mod corespunzator de guvernele lor respective, au semnat prezenta conventie. “””

PENTRU MAI MULTE DETALII PUTETI CITII SI AICI :

Declaration of the Rights of the Child(1959)

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

 

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